MAMMILLARIA

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8e/Mammillariadioica.jpg/600px-Mammillariadioica.jpg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8e/Mammillariadioica.jpg/600px-Mammillariadioica.jpg

Autor: Haworth

• ETYMOLOGY
“Composed of nipples”, referring to the tubercles of the plants, typical in this genus.
• DESCRIPTION
A genus of usually small, low-growing plants, globose to elongated, sometimes strongly caespitose and forming cushions. Stems distinctly tuberculate, sometimes laticiferous (producing latex, a milky sap). Tubercles mostly conical, cylindrical or pyramidal, devoid of glands, not grooved, at the top of which are spines, arranged mostly in two groups, radial spines, with forms and texture extremely variable, hairy, bristly, aciculate, subulate, etc., and central spines, usually sturdier, more often hooked in some species, sometimes absent. Axils naked, hairy, felted or setose, according to species.
Flowers diurnal, sometimes self-fertile, appearing at the axil of old areoles, at the base of tubercles, often forming a crown around the apex, rather small, bell-shaped or funnel-shaped, with a naked pericarpel, very diverse in colours, mostly purple pink, but also white, cream, yellow, red, magenta, lilac, pollinated by insects (bees, wasps and butterflies) or hummingbirds (in Mammillaria senilis). Fruits are berries, elongated, naked, mostly shiny red, but also white, yellow, green or orange. Seeds extremely variable according to species, pitted or wrinkled, tuberculate or smooth, light brown to dark brown or black, matt or shiny. Dispersal of seeds insured by lizards and ants.
• HABITAT
Considering its extreme biodiversity and according to species, the genus Mammillaria grows in very diverse habitats, in the shade of bushes and shrubs among mosses, lichens and ferns, or in full sun, on grassy hills, grasslands, dry arroyos, on limestone, marl, sandstone, granitic, basaltic, rhyolithic, ferruginous rocks, on oxidized conglomerates, mica-schists, slates, quartz, altered porphyr, volcanic tuffs or gypsum, in crevices and cracks, in pockets of humus, on steep cliffs, at the edge of often inaccessible ravines, in canyons, in forests under oaks, pines, junipers, cypresses, also in deserts, on sand dunes near the Atlantic or Pacific coast, on sandy, clayey, muddy or gravelly, loamy, volcanic alluvial detrital soils, in mountains, on steep slopes, from sea level up to 3300 m in altitude, sometimes under snow and ice in winter (M. vetula, M. senilis), together with numerous other cacti and succulents as well as bromeliads and orchids.
• DISTRIBUTION
The Antilles, Bahama Islands, Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala (Alta + Baja Verapaz, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Jalapa, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, San Marcos, Solola, Zacapa), Honduras, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California, Chihuahua, Chiapas, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico D.F., Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas), Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, USA (Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas), Venezuela, Virgin Islands.

Currently 186 recognised species + 86 subspecies:
– Mammillaria albicans* (Britton & Rose) A.Berger 1929
– Mammillaria albicans subsp .fraileana* (Britton & Rose) Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria albicoma* Boedeker 1929
– Mammillaria albiflora* (Werderm.) Backeb. 1937
– Mammillaria albilanata* Backeb. 1939
– Mammillaria albilanata subsp . oaxacana D R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria albilanata subsp . reppenhagenii (D R.Hunt) D R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria albilanata subsp . tegelbergiana* (H.E.Gates ex G.E.Lindsay) D R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria amajacensis Brachet, M.Lacoste & F.Otero 1991
– Mammillaria anniana* Glass & Foster 1981
– Mammillaria armillata* K.Brandegee 1900
– Mammillaria aureilanata* Backeb. 1938
– Mammillaria backebergiana* Buchenau 1966
– Mammillaria backebergiana sub sp . ernestii (Fittkau) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria barbata* Engelm. 1848
– Mammillaria baumii* Boed. 1926
– Mammillaria beneckei* Ehrenb. 1844
– Mammillaria beneckei subsp. balsasoides (Craig) J.Lode 2015
– Mammillaria berkiana A.B.Lau 1986
– Mammillaria bertholdii T.Linzen 2014
– Mammillaria blossfeldiana* Boed. 1931
– Mammillaria bocasana* Poselg. 1853
– Mammillaria bocasana subsp. eschauzieri (j.M.Coult.) W.A. & B. Fitz Maurice 1995
– Mammillaria bocensis* R.T.Craig 1945
– Mammillaria boelderliana Wohlschlager 1988
– Mammillaria bombycina* Quehl 1910
– Mammillaria boolii* G.E.Linds. 1953
– Mammillaria brachytrichion* Luthy 1987
– Mammillaria brandegeei* (J.M.Coult.) K.Brandegee 1897
– Mammillaria brandegeei subsp . gabbii (J.M.Coult.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria brandegeei subsp . glareosa (Boed.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria brandegeei subsp . lewisiana G.E.Linds.) D.R.Hunt 1998
– Mammillaria candida* Scheidw. 1838 (ex Mammilloydia candida)
– Mammillaria canelensis R.T.Craig 1945
– Mammillaria capensis* (H.E.Gates) R.T.Craig 1945
– Mammillaria carmenae* Castaneda & Nunez 1953
– Mammillaria carnea* Zucc. ex Pfeiff. 1837
– Mammillaria carretii* Rebut ex K.Schum. 1898
– Mammillaria cerralboa* (Britton & Rose) Orcutt 1926
– Mammillaria chionocephala J.A.Purpus 1906
– Mammillaria coahuilenses* (Boed.) Moran 1953
– Mammillaria coahuilensis sub sp. albiarmata (Boed.) D.R.Hunt 1998
– Mammillaria colombiana* Salm-Dyck 1850
– Mammillaria columbiana subsp. jamaicensis (A.E.Areces) J.Lode 2013
– Mammillaria columbiana subsp. ruestii (Quehl) J.Lode 2013
– Mammillaria columbiana subsp. tamayonis (Killip ex Schnee) J.Lode 2013
– Mammillaria columbiana subsp. yucatanensis (Britton & Rose) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria compressa* DC. 1828
– Mammillaria compressa subsp . centralifera (Repp.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria crinita* DC. 1828
– Mammillaria crinita subsp . wildii* (A.Dietr.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria crucнgera* C.Mart. 1832
– Mammillaria crucнgera subsp. tlalocii (Repp.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria decipiens* Scheidw. 1838
– Mammillaria decipiens subsp. albescens (Tiegel) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria decipiens subsp. camptotricha* (Dams) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria deherdtiana* Farwig 1969
– Mammillaria deherdtiana subsp. dodsonii (Bravo) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria densispina* (J.M.Coult.) Orcutt 1926
– Mammillaria dioica* K.Brandegee 1897
– Mammillaria dioica subsp . angelensis (R.T.Craig) Hunt 1998
– Mammillaria discolor* Haw. 1812
– Mammillaria discolor subsp. esperanzaensis (Boed.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria discolor subsp. pachyrhiza (Backeb.) J.Lode 2013
– Mammillaria dixanthocentron* Backeb. 1963
– Mammillaria duoformis* R.T.Craig & E.Y.Dawson 1948
– Mammillaria duwei* H.Rogozinski & P.J.Braun 1985
– Mammillaria eichlamii* Quehl 1908
– Mammillaria elongata* DC. 1828
– Mammillaria elongata subsp. echinaria (DC.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria eriacantha* Link & Otto ex Pfeiff. 1837
– Mammillaria eriacantha subsp. velizii J.Linares 2006
– Mammillaria erythrosperma* Boed. 1918
– Mammillaria estebanensis G.E.Linds. 1967
– Mammillaria evermanniana (Britton & Rose) Orcutt 1926
– Mammillaria fittkaui* Glass & Foster 1971
– Mammillaria fittkaui subsp. limonensis* (Repp.) Luethy 1995
– Mammillaria flavicentra* Mottram 1980
– Mammillaria formosa* Galeotti ex Pfeiff. 1838
– Mammillaria formosa subsp. microthele (Muehlenpf.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria formosa subsp. pseudocrucigera (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria gasseriana* Boed. 1927
– Mammillaria geminispina* Haw. 1824
– Mammillaria geminispina subsp. leucocentra (Berg) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria gigantea* Hildm. ex K.Schum. 1898
– Mammillaria giselae Martinez-Avalos & Glass 1997
– Mammillaria glassii* R.Foster 1968
– Mammillaria glochidiata Mart. 1832
– Mammillaria goodridgii* Salm-Dyck 1850
– Mammillaria grahamii* Engelmann 1856
– Mammillaria grusonii* Runge 1889
– Mammillaria grusonii subsp. pachycylindrica (Backeb. 1959) J.Lode 2013
– Mammillaria grusonii subsp. zeyeriana (Haage f. ex K.Schum.) J.Lode 2013
– Mammillaria guelzowiana* Werderm. 1928
– Mammillaria guerreronis* (Bravo) Backeb. & F.M.Knuth 1935
– Mammillaria guillauminiana* Backeb. 1952
– Mammillaria haageana* Pfeiff. 1836
– Mammillaria haageana subsp. conspicua* (J.A.Purpus) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria haageana subsp. elegans D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria haageana subsp. san-angelensis (Sanchez-Mejorada) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria haageana subsp. schmollii (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria hahniana* Werderm. 1929
– Mammillaria hahniana subsp. bravoae (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria hahniana subsp. mendeliana (Bravo) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria hahniana subsp. woodsii (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria halbingeri* Boed. 1933
– Mammillaria hermosana Linzen, Hoeve & Martinez-Avalos 2014
– Mammillaria hernandezii* Glass & Foster 1983
– Mammillaria herrerae* Werderm. 1931
– Mammillaria heyderi* Muehlenpf. 1848
– Mammillaria heyderi subsp. gaumeri (Britton & Rose) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria heyderi subsp. gummifera (Engelm.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria heyderi subsp. hemisphaerica (Engelm.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria heyderi subsp. macdougalii (Rose ex L.H.Bailey) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria heyderi subsp. meiacantha (Engelm.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria huitzilopochtli* D.R.Hunt 1979
– Mammillaria huitzilopochtli subsp . niduliformis (A.B.Lau) Pilbeam 1999
– Mammillaria humboldtii* Ehrenb. 1840
– Mammillaria hutchisoniana* (H.E.Gates) Boed. ex Backeb. & F.M.Knuth 1935 (non hutchinsoniana)
– Mammillaria hutchisoniana subsp. louisae (G.E.Linds.) D.R.Hunt 199
– Mammillaria insularis* H.E.Gates 1938
– Mammillaria jaliscana* (Britton & Rose) Boed. 1933
– Mammillaria jaliscana subsp. zacatecasensis* (Shurly) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria johnstonii (Britton & Rose) Orcutt 1926
– Mammillaria karwinskiana* Mart. 1832
– Mammillaria karwinskiana subsp. beiselii (Diers) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria karwinskiana subsp. collinsii (Britton & Rose) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria karwinskiana subsp. nejapensis (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria klissingiana* Boed. 1927
– Mammillaria knippeliana* Quehl 1907
– Mammillaria kraehenbuehlii (Krainz) Krainz 1971
– Mammillaria lasiacantha* Engelm. 1856
– Mammillaria lasiacantha subsp. egregia (Backeb. ex H.Rogoz. & Appenz.) D.R.Hunt 1998
– Mammillaria lasiacantha subsp. hyalina D.R.Hunt 1997 (= M. wohlschlogeri)
– Mammillaria laui* D.R.Hunt 1979
– Mammillaria laui subsp. dasyacantha (D.R.Hunt) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria laui subsp. subducta (D.R.Hunt) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria lenta* K.Brandegee 1904
– Mammillaria linaresensis R. & F.Wolf 1990
– Mammillaria lindsayi* R.T.Craig 1940
– Mammillaria longiflora* (Britton & Rose) A.Berger 1929
– Mammillaria longiflora subsp. stampferi (Repp.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria longiflora subsp. tepexicensis (J.Meyran) Luethy 2000
– Mammillaria longimamma* dc. 1828
– Mammillaria luethyi* G.S. Hinton 1996
– Mammillaria magallanii Schmoll ex R.T.Craig 1945
– Mammillaria magnifica* Buchenau 1967
– Mammillaria magnimamma* Haw. 1824
– Mammillaria mainiae* K.Brandegee 1900
– Mammillaria mammillaris* (L.) Karsten 1882
– Mammillaria marcosii* W.A.Fitz Maurice, B.Fitz Maurice & Glass 1997
– Mammillaria marksiana* Krainz 1948
– Mammillaria mathildae* Glass & Foster 1971
– Mammillaria matudae* Bravo 1956
– Mammillaria mazatlanensis* K.Schum. ex Gurke 1901
– Mammillaria melaleuca* Salm-Dyck 1850
– Mammillaria melanocentra* Poselg. 1855
– Mammillaria melanocentra subsp. rubrograndis* (Repp.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria mercadensis* Patoni 1910
– Mammillaria meyranii* Bravo 1956
– Mammillaria microhelia* Werderm. 1930
– Mammillaria miegiana Earle 1972
– Mammillaria moelleriana* Boed. 1924
– Mammillaria morganiana* Tiegel 1933
– Mammillaria muehlenpfordtii* c.F.Forst. 1847
– Mammillaria multidigitata* Radley ex G.E.Lindsay 1947
– Mammillaria mystax* Mart. 1832
– Mammillaria nana* Backeb. ex Mottram 1980
– Mammillaria napina* J.A.Purpus 1912
– Mammillaria nazasensis* (Glass & Foster) Repp. 1987
– Mammillaria neopalmeri* R.T.Craig 1945
– Mammillaria nivosa Link ex Pfeiff. 1837
– Mammillaria nunezii* (Britton & Rose) Orcutt 1926
– Mammillaria nunezii subsp. bella (Backeb.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria orcuttii* Boed. 1930
– Mammillaria oteroi* Glass & Foster 1975
– Mammillaria painteri* Rose ex Quehl 1917 (= M. nana?)
– Mammillaria parkinsonii* Ehrenb. 1840
– Mammillaria pectinifera* F.A.C.Weber 1898
– Mammillaria peninsularis* (Britton & Rose) Orcutt 1926
– Mammillaria pennispinosa* Krainz 1948
– Mammillaria perbella* Hildm. ex K.Schum. 1898
– Mammillaria perezdelarosae* Bravo & Scheinvar 1985
– Mammillaria petrophila* K.Brandegee 1904
– Mammillaria petrophila subsp. arida (Rose ex Quehl) D.R.Hunt 1998
– Mammillaria petrophila subsp. baxteriana* (H.E.Gates) D.R.Hunt 1998
– Mammillaria petterssonii* Hildm. 1886
– Mammillaria phitauiana* (E.M.Baxter) Backeb. 1931
– Mammillaria picta* Meinsh. 1858
– Mammillaria picta subsp. viereckii (Boed.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria pilispina* J.A.Purpus 1912
– Mammillaria plumosa* F.A.C.Weber 1898
– Mammillaria polyedra* Mart. 1832
– Mammillaria polythele* Mart. 1832
– Mammillaria polythele subsp. durispina (Boed.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria polythele subsp. obconella (Scheidw.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria pringlei (J.M. Coulter) K.Brandegee 1900
– Mammillaria pottsii* Scheer ex Salm-Dyck 1850
– Mammillaria prolifera* (Mill.) Haw. 1812
– Mammillaria prolifera subsp. arachnoidea (D.R.Hunt) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria prolifera subsp. texana (Engelm.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria pseudoperbella Quehl 1909
– Mammillaria rekoi* (Britton & Rose) Vaupel 192
– Mammillaria rekoi subsp. aureispina (A.B.Lau) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria rekoi subsp. leptacantha (A.B.Lau) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria rettigiana* Boed. 1930
– Mammillaria rhodantha* Link & Otto 1829
– Mammillaria rhodantha subsp. fera-rubra (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria rhodantha subsp. mccartenii D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria rhodantha subsp. mollendorffiana (Shurly) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria ritteriana Boed. 1929
– Mammillaria roemeri Kruger & Rischer 2002
– Mammillaria roseoalba* Boed. 1929
– Mammillaria saboae* Glass 1966
– Mammillaria saboae subsp. goldii (Glass & Foster) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria saboae subsp. haudeana (A.B.Lau & Wagner) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria sanchez-mejoradae* R.Gonzales 1992
– Mammillaria sartorii* J.A.Purpus 1911
– Mammillaria scheinvariana R.Ortega-Varela & Glass 1998
– Mammillaria schiedeana* Ehrenb. 1838
– Mammillaria schiedeana subsp. dumetorum (J.A.Purpus) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria schumannii* Hildm. 1891
– Mammillaria schwarzii* Shurly 1949
– Mammillaria scrippsiana* (Britton & Rose) Orcutt 1926
– Mammillaria scrippsiana subsp. schumacheri T.Linzen 2010
– Mammillaria seideliana Quehl 1911
– Mammillaria sempervivi* DC. 1828
– Mammillaria senilis* Salm-Dyck 1850 (ex Momillopsis senilis)
– Mammillaria sheldonii* (Britton & Rose) Boedeker 1933
– Mammillaria sinforosensis T.Linzen & R.Schumacher 2007
– Mammillaria sinistrohamata* Boed. 1932
– Mammillaria solisioides Backeb. 1952
– Mammillaria sonorensis* R.T.Craig 1940
– Mammillaria sphacelata* Mart. 1832
– Mammillaria sphacelata subsp. viperina* (J.A.Purpus) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria sphaerica A.Dietr. 1853
– Mammillaria sphaerica subsp. paulii (T.Linzen 2005) J.Lode 2013
– Mammillaria spinosissima* Lem. 1838
– Mammillaria spinosissima subsp. pilcayensis (Bravo) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria spinosissima subsp. tepoxtlana D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria standleyi* (Britton & Rose) Orcutt 1926
– Mammillaria stella-de-tacubaya* Heese 1904
– Mammillaria supertexta* C.Mart. ex Pfeiff. 1837
– Mammillaria surculosa* Boed. 1931
– Mammillaria tayloriorum* Glass & Foster 1975
– Mammillaria tetrancistra* Engelm. 1852
– Mammillaria theresae* Cutak 1967
– Mammillaria thornberi* Orcutt 1902
– Mammillaria thornberi subsp. yaquensis* (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria tonalensis* D.R.Hunt 1979
– Mammillaria uncinata* D.R.Hunt 1979
– Mammillaria variaculeata* Buchenau 1966
– Mammillaria vetula* Mart. 1832
– Mammillaria vetula subsp. gracilis* (Pfeiff.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria vetula subsp. lacostei Plein & H. Weber 2003
– Mammillaria voburnensis* Scheer 1845
– Mammillaria vonwissiana Krainz 1945
– Mammillaria wagneriana* Boed. 1932
– Mammillaria weingartiana* Boed. 1932
– Mammillaria wiesingeri* Boed. 1933
– Mammillaria wiesingeri subsp. apamensis (Repp.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria winterae* Boed. 1929
– Mammillaria winterae subsp. aramberri D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria wrightii* Engelm. 1856
– Mammillaria wrightii subsp. wilcoxii (K.Schum.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria xaltianguensis* Sanchez-Mej. 1975
– Mammillaria xaltianguensis subsp. bambusiphila (Repp.) D.R.Hunt 1997
– Mammillaria xochipilli Repp. 1987
– Mammillaria zeilmanniana* Boed. 1931
– Mammillaria zephyranthoides* Scheidw. 1841
– Mammillaria zephyranthoides subsp. heidiae (Krainz) Luethy 2000
– Mammillaria zublerae* Repp. 1987

References: "TAXONOMY of the CACTACEAE" -  ISBN 978-84-617-3692-8 (Vol. 2)

 

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