Autor: Backeberg

≪Weberbauer’s cereus≫, genus honouring August Weberbauer (1871-1948), German botanist who was director of the botanical and zoological gardens of Lima (see picture above, public domain).
A genus of shrubby, columnar to treelike plants, branching from or near the base, sometimes with a well defined trunk. Branches erect or curved, sometimes intermingled, ribs variable in number (8-25), areoles close-set, large, woolly, whitish to grey or yellowish. Radial spines numerous (20-60), setose to aciculate; central spines, when present, sturdy.
Flowers nocturnal, self-sterile, remaining open in the morning, appearing near the apex, tubular to funnel-shaped, roughly zygomorphic, with a floral tube more or less S-shaped, whitish, brownish or reddish, with pericarpel covered with scales and with hairs, pollinated by bats (Glossophaga soricina, Platalina genovensium) or by hummingbirds (Patagona gigas, Rhodopis vesper), also bees. In Peru, the flowering of Weberbauerocereus weberbaueri is nocturnal (but still open in the morning), and the pollination is mainly done by bats, also by hummingbirds in conditions of extreme aridity (Sahley 1996), which is a clear example of a pollination syndrome both diurnal and nocturnal in South America. Fruits rather small, yellow orange-coloured to greenish or reddish, somewhat hairy, with a white pulp, floral remains persistent. Seeds rather small, numerous, black, shiny. Seed dispersal ensured by bats (chiropterochory) to a small extent and inefficient because of only the few colonies of bats that exist.
The genus Weberbauerocereus grows usually in high valleys, on north facing slopes often covered with humid fogs, on rocky reliefs, among a shrubby vegetation or among rocks, from 540 m up to 3500 m in altitude, sometimes together with other columnar cacti (Armatocereus, Browningia). The only Bolivian species, recently described (2010) W. madidiensis, is restricted to the tropical dry forests in the Yungas sub-Andean region.
Bolivia (La Paz), Peru (Ancash, Arequipa, Cajamarca, Cuzco, Huancavelica, lea, La Libertad, Lima, Moquegua).

Currently 9 recognised species:
– Weberbauerocereus albus F.Ritter 1962 (= W. longicomus)
– Weberbauerocereus cephalomacrostibas* (Werderm. & Backeb.) F.Ritter 1981
– Weberbauerocereus churinensis F. Ritter 1962
– Weberbauerocereus cuzcoensis* Knize 1969
– Weberbauerocereus madidiensis Quispe & Fuentes 2010
– Weberbauerocereus rauhii* Backeb. 1957
– Weberbauerocereus torataensis F.Ritter 1981
– Weberbauerocereus weberbaueri* (K.Schum. ex Vaupel) Backeb. 1957
– Weberbauerocereus winterianus* F.Ritter 1962 (ex 1/1/ johnsonii)

References: "TAXONOMY of the CACTACEAE" -  ISBN 978-84-617-3692-8 (Vol. 2)



Autor: Backeberg

Genus honouring Louis Vatrican (1904-2007), Monegasque, director of the Exotic Garden of Monaco from 1935 until 1969, and one of the founder members of the IOS (International Organization of Succulent Plants). See picture above, cJard. Ex. of Monaco/Jean-Marie Solichon.
A monotypic genus of columnar plants branching from the base, with erect stems reaching 5 m high and 10 cm in diameter, with numerous ribs (up to 27) weakly tuberculate. Areoles very close, woolly, spines relatively short (ca. 2 – 3 cm). When stems are mature, they develop a longitudinal dense cephalium consisting of spines and red wool, becoming grey with age.
Flowers nocturnal remaining open in the morning, self-sterile, appearing near the apex, widely bell-shaped, white yellowish, pale to intense pink, with the floral tube covered with numerous bristles and with pinkish wool, pollinated by bats. Fruits scaly, deeply sunken in the cephalium. Seeds roughly egg-shaped, dark brown, shiny, slightly tuberculate and striate, dispersal myrmecophilous.
The monotypic genus Vatricania is endemic to Bolivia, and grows on hills or in valleys, on rocky soils, forming true forests, among a shrubby vegetation, between 800 m and 2000 m in altitude, together with other cacti.
Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz).

Currently only one recognized species:
– Vatricania guentheri* (Kupper) Backeberg 1950

References: "TAXONOMY of the CACTACEAE" -  ISBN 978-84-617-3692-8 (Vol. 2)



Autor: Buining

Genus honouring Werner Uebelmann (1921-2014), Swiss nursery gardener and prospector of cacti, especially in Brazil, but also in Paraguay and Uruguay (see picture above, ccourtesy Thomas Uebelmann).
A genus of usually solitary plants, rather small, globose to cylindrical (exceptionally up to 1.5 m high), with the epidermis smooth, papillose or waxy, with many ribs sharply defined or tuberculate. Areoles very close, spines fragile and breakable, becoming loose rather easily, sometimes pectinate (U. pectinifera).
Flowers diurnal, self sterile, apical or subapical, funnel-shaped, rather small (max. 2.5cm in diameter), yellow, with the pericarpel areoles densely pubescent or woolly, sometimes with bristles or spines, pollinated by bees (pers. obs. 1986). Fruits elongated, like berries, red or yellowish green, dry and dehiscent when ripe. Seeds egg-shaped to spoonshaped (cochleariform), rough to warty, black. Supposed myrmecophilous (by ants) dispersal.
The genus Uebelmannia is endemic to Minas Gerais in Brazil, and grows in the mountains of Minas Gerais, on gentle slopes, or highlands, on acid soils, mostly in almost pure white quartz sand, accompanied by plant debris, or in crevices of granite rocks, between 650 m and 1460 m in altitude, together with other cacti (Pilosocereus, Cipocereus), grasses, Velloziaceae, Portulacaceae, orchids and terrestrial bromeliads. The atmospheric humidity is high and the diurnal temperature may hardly reach +13°C in winter. The soil is moderately moist, due to nocturnal mists that rise in the late morning.
Brazil (Minas Gerais).

Currently 3 recognised species + 4 subspecies:
– Uebelmannia buiningii Donald 1968
– Uebelmannia gummifera* (Backeberg & Voli) Backeb. 1967
– Uebelmannia gummifera subsp. meninensis (Buining) P.J.Braun & E.Esteves 1995
– Uebelmannia pectinifera* Buining 1967
– Uebelmannia pectinifera subsp. eriocactoides R.Repka, R.Krajca & V.Toman 2010
– Uebelmannia pectinifera subsp. flavispina* (Buining & Brederoo) P.J.Braun & E.Esteves 1995
– Uebelmannia pectinifera subsp. horrida (P.J.Braun) P.J.Braun & E.Esteves 1995

References: "TAXONOMY of the CACTACEAE" -  ISBN 978-84-617-3692-8 (Vol. 2)



Autor: (Backeberg) Buxbaum & Backeberg

≪Top Fruit≫, referring to the characteristic inverted cone or top-shaped fruit of the species in this genus.
A genus of very small plants, globose flattened to elongated, neotenic, usually solitary, but some may produce clusters. Ribs absent, divided into low tubercles, rounded to conical or deltoid. Areoles situated at the end of tubercles, often woolly, white, axils shallow. Spines usually few, flexible, slightly sharp or not at all.
Flowers diurnal, self-sterile, appearing at the apex of stems, funnel-shaped, usually white to creamy white, yellowish, pinkish to magenta or purple, pollinated by insects, usually bees and flies. Fruits like berries, top-shaped, with variable dehiscence according to species. Seeds rough to granular, tuberculate, black, with a large hilum.
The genus Turbinicarpus is endemic to Mexico, and grows very mimetically, among grasses, bushes and shrubs, often almost completely buried, on small hills or in mountains, on various rocky or gravelly soils, usually limestone, also clayey (T. polaskii), granite (T. swobodae), gypsum (T. hoferi), humus (T. pseudomacrochele), or even on dry salt lakes (T. Iophophoroides), on shale cliffs (T. alonsoi), always in small localized colonies, in crevices and cracks of rocks where pockets of humus are found, between 800 m and 2600 m in altitude. Populations exhibit an extreme geographic variability.
Mexico (Coahuila, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas).

Currently 15 recognised species + 24 subspecies and varieties to debate and 3 supposed hybrids:
– Turbinicarpus alonsoi* Glass & Arias 1996 (supposed hybr.)
– Turbinicarpus bonatzii* Frank 1992
– Turbinicarpus gielsdorfianus* (Werdermann) John & Riha 1983
– Turbinicarpus graminispinus Matuszewski, Mysak & Jiruse 2010
– Turbinicarpus hoferi Luthy & Lau 1991
– Turbinicarpus horripilus* (Lemaire) John & Riha 1983
– Turbinicarpus horripilus subsp. wrobelianus Nitzschke & A.Montes 2000
– Turbinicarpus jauernigii* Frank 1993
– Turbinicarpus iaui* Glass & Foster 1975
– Turbinicarpus iophophoroides* (Werdermann) Buxbaum & Backeberg 1937
– Turbinicarpus x mombergeri Riha 1996 (natural hybr. between T. pseudopectinatus et T. Iaui)
– Turbinicarpus pseudomacrochele* (Backeberg) Buxbaum & Backeberg 1937
– Turbinicarpus pseudomacrochele subsp. krainzianus (Frank) Glass 1997
– Turbinicarpus pseudomacrochele subsp. minimus* (G.Frank) Liithy & Hofer 2002
– Turbinicarpus pseudomacrochele subsp. lausseri (Diers & Frank) Glass 1997
– Turbinicarpus pseudopectinatus* (Backeberg) Glass & Forster 1977
– Turbinicarpus pseudopectinatus subsp. jarmilae Chvastek & Halda 2000
– Turbinicarpus roseiflorus* Backeberg 1963 nom. invai, (supposed hybr.)
– Turbinicarpus saueri* (Bodecker) John & Riha 1983
– Turbinicarpus sauerii subsp. gonzalezii Pavlicek & Zatlokal 2005
– Turbinicarpus saueri subsp. knuthianus* (Bodecker) Luthy 2000
– Turbinicarpus saueri subsp. nelissae Halda & Panarotto 1998
– Turbinicarpus saueri subsp. nieblae* (Garcia-Mor., Martinez-Alv. & Bergm.) Hofer 2011
– Turbinicarpus saueri subsp. septentrionalis Matuszewski & Snicer 2004
– Turbinicarpus saueri subsp. verduzcoiZachar & Lux 2004
– Turbinicarpus saueri subsp. ysabelae* (Schlange) Luthy 1999
– Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus* (Bodecker) Buxbaum & Backeberg 1937
– Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. andersonii* (Riha) Mosco 1999 (= T. panarottoi)
– Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. dickisoniae (Glass & Foster) Taylor 1998
– Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. flaviflorus* (Frank & Lau) Glass 1997
– Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. gracilis (Glass & Foster) Glass 1997
– Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. klinkerianus* (Backeberg & Jacobsen) Taylor 1998
– Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. macrochele (Werdermann) Taylor 1998
– Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. rioverdensis* (Frank) Luthy 1999
– Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. rubriflorus (Frank) Panarotto 1999
– Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. schwarzii* (Shurly) Taylor 1998
– Turbinicarpus swobodae* Diers & Esteves 1987
– Turbinicarpus valdezianus* (Moller) Glass & Forster 1977
– Turbinicarpus viereckii* (Werdermann) John & Riha 1983
– Turbinicarpus viereckii subsp. major* (Glass & Foster) Glass 1997
– Turbinicarpus viereckii subsp. neglectus Donati & Zanovello 2005
– Turbinicarpus viereckii subsp. reconditus Labhart 2012

References: "TAXONOMY of the CACTACEAE" -  ISBN 978-84-617-3692-8 (Vol. 2)



Autor: (Berger) Riccobono

“Hairy Cereus” referring to the character of the floral tube, which is hairy in this genus.
A genus of shrubby to treelike plants, creeping, decumbent to erect (some rare species are pendulous) or massive columnar, reaching up to 15 m high. Ribs straight, with areoles close-set, covered with wool, with usually distinct radial and central spines, variable in size and thickness, finely aciculate to strongly subulate, according to species.
Flowers nocturnal or diurnal, large, funnel-shaped and widely open, with long and sturdy floral tube, fleshy, scaly, more or less densely covered with dark brown (rarely white) hairs borne at the axil of scales, with greenish, pinkish or reddish outer tepals and white, yellow, red, or purple pink inner tepals, with numerous stamens and with pistil stigmas elongated and also numerous, pollinated, according to species, by bees (Apis mellifera, Arhysosage ochracea, Augochloropsis sp., Bombus opifex, Brachyglossula ancasti, B. communis, B. martinezi, Caenohalictus sp., Centris nigerrima, Lasioglossum sp., Megachile saulcyi, Ptilothrix tricolor, Trichoturgus sp., Trigona spinipes, Xylocopa grisescens, X. ordinaria, X. splendidula), wasps (Allosclrtetica lanosa, Polybia ruficeps), flies (Copestylum concinna), beetles (Arctodium vulpinus, Lichnia gallardoi), hummingbirds (Adelomyia melanogenys, Heliomaster squamosus, Patagona gigas, Rhodopis vesper) during the day; or Sphingideae (Manduca diffissa) and bats (Glossophaga soricina, Lonchophylla mordax) at night. Fruits thick-walled, globose greenish to reddish, with hairs but without spines, pulp white, longitudinally dehiscent, not always retaining the remains of the dried perianth. Seeds rather small, globose to elongated, numerous, dark brown to black, pitted or foveolate, dispersal essentially myrmecophilous (Solenopsis sp.), also ornithophilous (Mimus thenca) and chiropterophilous (Glossophaga soricina).
The genus Trichocereus has a very wide distribution area, and grows on various substrates, usually grassy and rocky or sandy, ferruginous soils, in deserts, in mountains of the Andes, on rocky hillsides, on dry plains, drainage areas, canyons, sometimes clinging on cliff faces, or even living on saline soils, among bushes and xerophytic spiny shrubs, from 25 m (T. chiiensis subsp. litoralis) up to 4300 m in altitude, where some species withstand snow and frost.
Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Cordoba, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santiago del Estero, Tucuman), Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija), Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo, Santiago, Valparaiso), Ecuador (Azuay, Loja), Paraguay (Concepcion), Peru (Ancash, Arequipa, Cuzco, Lima, Moquegua, Piura, Tacna).

Currently 43 recognised species (+ 6 subspecies and varieties):
– Trichocereus andalgalensis* (F.A.C.Weber) Hosseus 1939 (= T. huascha var. rubriflorus)
– Trichocereus angelesiae* R.Kiesling 1978
– Trichocereus arboricola* Kimnach 1990
– Trichocereus atacamensis* (Philippi) W.T.Marshall & Bock 1941
– Trichocereus atacamensis subsp. pasacana* (F.A.C.Weber ex RLimpler) Ritter 1980
– Trichocereus bertramianus* Backeb. 1935
– Trichocereus bolligerianus (Machler & Helmut Walter) S. Albesiano 2012
– Trichocereus bridgesii* (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1920 (ex E. lageniformis)
– Trichocereus cabrerae R.Kiesling 1976 (probable hybr.)
– Trichocereus camarguensis Cardenas 1953
– Trichocereus candicans* (Gillies ex Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1920
– Trichocereus candicans subsp. pseudocandicans (Backeb.) J.Lode 2013
– Trichocereus caulescens Ritter 1966
– Trichocereus chalaensis Rauh & Backeb. 1956
– Trichocereus chiloensis* (Colla) Britton & Rose 1920
– Trichocereus chiloensis subsp. litoralis (Johow) Faundez 2007
– Trichocereus crassicaulis* (R. Kiesling) J. Lode 2013
– Trichocereus cuzcoensis Britton & Rose 1920
– Trichocereus deserticola* (Werderm.) Looser 1929
– Trichocereus hahnianus* (Backeberg) Guiggi 2013
– Trichocereus huascha* (F.A.C.Weber) Britton & Rose 1920
– Trichocereus huascha subsp. robusta* (Rausch) J.Lode 2013 (ex T. lobivioides)
– Trichocereus lamprochlorus* (Lem.) Britton & Rose 1920
– Trichocereus macrogonus* (Salm-Dyck) Riccob. 1909
– Trichocereus macrogonus var. pachanoi* (Britton & Rose) S.AIbesiano & R.Kiesling 2012 (= ex T. pachanoi)
– Trichocereus macrogonus subsp. peruvianus* (Britton & Rose) J.Lode 2013
– Trichocereus purpureopilosus Weingart 1930
– Trichocereus rowleyi* Friedrich 1974 (ex Lobivia grandiflora)
– Trichocereus quadratiumbonatus Ritter 1980
– Trichocereus schickendantzii* (F.A.C.Weber) Britton & Rose 1920
– Trichocereus schoenii Rauh & Backeb. 1958
– Trichocereus serpentinus (M.Lowry & M.Mendoza) J.Lode 2013
– Trichocereus skottsbergii* Backeb. 1950
– Trichocereus smrzianus* (Backeb.) Backeb. 1966
– Trichocereus spachianus (Lem.) Riccob. 1909
– Trichocereus spinibarbis* (Otto) F.Ritter 1965 ? (doubtful name)
– Trichocereus strigosus* (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1920
– Trichocereus tacaquirensls* Cardenas 1953
– Trichocereus taquimbalensis* Cardenas 1953
– Trichocereus tarijensis* (Vaupel) Werderm. 1940 (= T. poco)
– Trichocereus terscheckii* (Parm.) Britton & Rose 1920
– Trichocereus thelegonoides* (Speg.) Britton & Rose 1920
– Trichocereus thelegonus* (Weber) Britton & Rose 1920
– Trichocereus tunariensis Cardenas 1959
– Trichocereus vasquezii* Rausch 1974
– Trichocereus vatteri R.Kiesling 1976
– Trichocereus vollianus* Backeb. 1935
– Trichocereus walteri* Kiesling) J.G.Lambert 1998
– Trichocereus werdermannianus Backeb. 1935 (= T. validus)
Modifications proposed by S. Albesiano (2012):
– Trichocereus chiloensis subsp. australis (Ritter) Albesiano 2012
– Trichocereus chiloensis subsp. eburneus (Phil, ex K. Schum.) Albesiano 2012
– Trichocereus chiloensis subsp. panhoplites (K. Schum.) Albesiano 2012
– Trichocereus faundezii Albesiano 2012
– Trichocereus nigripilis (Phil.) Backeb. 1935 (ex T. coquimbanus)
– Trichocereus pectiniferus Albesiano 2012
– Trichocereus undulosus Albesiano 2012
– Trichocereus uyupampensis Backeberg 1936 (= T. glaucus)

References: "TAXONOMY of the CACTACEAE" -  ISBN 978-84-617-3692-8 (Vol. 2)